Background/Objective. No published population-based study investigates the association between hyperuricemia and undiagnosed adult leukemia in Taiwan. The aim of the study was to investigate whether hyperuricemia might be an early manifestation of undiagnosed adult leukemia in Taiwan. Methods. A population-based cohort study was conducted to analyze the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 47708 subjects aged 20 to 84 years with newly diagnosed hyperuricemia as the hyperuricemia group from 2000 to 2013, and 190832 randomly selected subjects without hyperuricemia as the non-hyperuricemia group. The hyperuricemia group and the non-hyperuricemia group were followed for one year to estimate the incidence of new diagnosis of leukemia. Results. The overall incidence of leukemia was 1.32-fold higher in the hyperuricemia group than the non-hyperuricemia group (0.74 versus 0.55 per 10000 person-months, 95% confidence interval 1.28-1.37). The incidence rate ratio of leukemia was statistically higher in the first 3 months of hyperuricemia diagnosis (incidence rate ratio 4.05). Conclusion. Adults with hyperuricemia have a higher incidence of being diagnosed with leukemia than those without hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia might be an early manifestation of undiagnosed adult leukemia. Clinicians should check the complete blood count with differential to detect the possibility of leukemia when adults present with hyperuricemia.

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