Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the complications in diabetes mellitus (DM) which caused by microvascular damage in the retina due to long term metabolic changes in diabetes. To date, there has been much research targeted on the determinant of genetic identification in DR patients. In DR, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) gene is accountable for breaking down the blood-retinal barrier and implicated in the role of neovascularization. It is thought that the polymorphism of VEGF -2578C/A (rs699947) contributed to the development of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 DM.

Aim: To determine whether the polymorphisms of VEGF-2578C/A are the risk factors for DR in type 2 DM patients in Bali, Indonesia.

Methods: This study is a case-control model comparing 33 cases DR patients in type-2 diabetes mellitus and 35 cases of non-DR as controls in Balinese ethnic. Polymorphisms of VEGF-2578C/A were examined by PCR analysis and DNA sequencing on rs699947 to identify any variation in A/C/T allele distribution. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data and determine the relation of polymorphism and DR.

Results: This research showed the genetic variation existence in VEGF-2578C/A polymorphism significantly (p=0,000) with C allele was higher in the DR group, in contrast, A and T allele were greater in the non-DR group compared to DR group. The result showed that C allele in VEGF-2578 contributed as a risk factor (OR=13.05; 95% CI= 2.69-63.18; p=0.001) for DR in type-2 DM (T2DM) patients in Bali, Indonesia.

Conclusion: Polymorphism of VEGF-2578C/A (rs699947) allele distribution can be concluded as a risk factor of DR within T2DM patients in Bali, Indonesia. This study may also be used to expand the knowledge in managing DR patients at an earlier stage to avoid further complications.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.