Background: Self-compassion enhances self-care behavior in patients with multiple sclerosis. This concept has been defined in previous studies; however, in order to effectively enhance it, patients’ perceptions about and experiences with self-compassion should be first understood. Therefore, this study aims to explore the meaning of self-compassion experienced by patients with multiple sclerosis.

Methods: This directed qualitative study was conducted in 2019 in Iran. Twenty-three patients with Multiple sclerosis were selected purposefully and interviewed individually. Qualitative content analysis was used for data analysis according to Hsieh and Shannon’s method.

Results: Seventy-six primary codes were detected as well as the following eleven categories: self-kindness, self-judgment, common humanity, isolation, mindfulness, over-identification, seeking support, concealment, spiritual resilience, marital life concern, and turning into an example for others. These categories express the characteristics and meaning of self-compassion in patients with multiple sclerosis. Six of the 11 characteristics are in accordance with the theory of Neff’s theory and five are related to patients and the cultural and social arena of the study environment.

Conclusion: Results of the present study showed that new dimensions of self-compassion were found by exploring multiple sclerosis patients’ experiences, which added to the suggested dimensions of others. This study is promising to nurses and paramedics as it will help them to better identify and to take better care of patients. The result will also help to design a valid tool to measure this issue of patients.

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