Although primary integrase strand transfer inhibitor resistance mutations are currently uncommon, the increasing use of integrase strand transfer inhibitor as a key component of the first, second and third-line antiretroviral regimens suggests that the prevalence of integrase drug resistance mutations will likely increase. The rise of several polymorphic mutations and natural polymorphisms also affects the level of susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 to integrase strand transfer inhibitor. The considerable variability among the various subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 may contribute to differences in integrase mutations associated with integrase strand transfer inhibitors. Notably, non-B subtypes of HIV type-1 (HIV-1) are the predominant cause of human immunodeficiency virus infection worldwide. The presence of diverse integrase drug resistance mutations can have significant implications on the administration of integrase strand transfer inhibitorbased antiretroviral therapy to patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

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