Gemcitabine is frequently utilized to treat pancreatic cancer. The purpose of our study was to create a gemcitabine-resistant MIA-PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line (MIAGR100) and to evaluate the anti-pancreatic cancer efficacy of HMJ-38, a new quinazolinone analogue. Compared to their parental counterparts, MIA-PaCa-2, established MIA-GR100 cells were less sensitive to gemcitabine. MIA-GR100 cell viability was not affected by 10, 50, or 100 nM gemcitabine concentrations. HMJ-38 reduced MIA-GR100 cell growth and induced autophagy and apoptosis. When stained with monodansylcadaverine (MDC), acridine orange (AO), and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), MIA-GR100 cells shrunk, punctured their membranes, and produced autophagy vacuoles and apoptotic bodies. Combining chloroquine (CQ) and 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) with HMJ-38 dramatically reduced cell viability, indicating that autophagy functions as a

cytoprotective mechanism. MIA-GR100 cells treated with both zVADFMK and HMJ-38 were much more viable than those treated with HMJ-38 alone. HMJ-38 promotes apoptosis in MIA-GR100 cells by activating caspase. Epidermal growth factor receptor

(EGFR) is one of HMJ-38's principal targets, as determined via in silico target screening and network prediction. HMJ-38 also inhibited EGFR kinase activity and EGFR-associated signaling in MIA-GR100 cells. HMJ-38 may be an effective chemotherapeutic adjuvant for gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells, in which it induces an antitumor response.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.