Herpes simplex, varicella-zoster lesions, skin rashes, diabetes, snake bites and insect bites have all been treated by using Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans). The pharmacological effects of C. nutans are influenced by the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolic acids, saponins, glycosides, steroids and tannins. This review focused on the phytochemical makeup, which varies geographically and is a subject of scarcely existing knowledge. C. nutans served as the primary search term, while the keywords “phytochemicals”, “chemical component” and “phytochemistry” were used to search the literature in the Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. The articles pertinent to the subject were found and reviewed. The phytochemical composition of C. nutans varied depending on the region it was cultivated in, and was influenced by the environmental conditions, genetics, air temperature and postharvest practices.

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